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公告:
A brief discussion on the influence of project preparatory work on project quality
2022/3/25 16:09:50

The completion of an engineering project is a systematic project, from putting forward ideas, suggestions, scheme selection, evaluation, decision-making, to initial expansion, construction drawing design, and then to project bidding, construction until completion。The ultimate goal is to form a reliable quality project。Most people pay attention to the quality control of the construction process, but the preparation work before the project start may not pay enough attention to the impact on the quality of the project。Of course, there is no doubt that the quality control of the construction process plays a crucial role in the overall quality of the project, but the existing problems such as difficult construction management are inevitably related to the insufficient preparation in the early stage。The early stage of the project is mainly divided into drawing design stage, bill of quantities preparation stage, bidding stage。These stages are mainly implemented by the owner, and whether the work in each stage is meticulous or not will directly affect the later construction of the project。In this paper, the influence of the three stages on the quality of the project is described and some suggestions are made, hoping to play a role in introducing jade。
  First, the impact of construction drawing design stage on project quality and countermeasures
  In the design of construction drawings, due to the different levels of designers, affected by subjective thoughts, more attention is paid to the structural safety and the satisfaction of mandatory specifications, and other details are often not fully considered。In the design, there are often irrational material selection, uncertain material specifications and types, insufficient refinement of node design, incorrect labeling, lagging material equipment selection and so on。The existence of these problems will directly affect the quality of the preparation of the project list and the bidding quotation of the bidding enterprises, and will also bring difficulties in the construction process in the future。In order to solve the existing problems, we should mainly solve them from the following aspects。
  First of all, a design consultation guarantee system with expert system as the core should be established。The owner does not understand the development trend at the beginning of the project, and often lags behind in the use of functions and internal facilities after completion, leaving a lot of regrets, so the design unit should introduce some advanced design ideas in the early stage of the project。The key to improve the design quality is to optimize the design scheme, and design consultation is an effective method to optimize the design scheme。Design consulting is that the owner voluntarily and paid to hire authoritative experts or authoritative design institutions to evaluate and optimize the benefit issues, shoddy schemes, advanced technology, rationality, etc. that the owner is concerned about, so as to determine the optimal design scheme and improve the investment efficiency。
  The second is to strengthen the design review of construction drawings。Design is the leader of engineering construction, and a good design review will play an important role in ensuring structural safety and saving investment。It is suggested that the relevant management departments, combined with the problems of previous years, formulate the precautions for the review of construction drawing design and the implementation rules of various professions, so as to reduce and eliminate various problems that may occur in the design stage of construction drawing and improve the quality of drawing design。
  The third is to strengthen the technical training of designers。China's vast territory, the design institute is faced with complex requirements of various construction projects, there are many technical difficulties。It will play a good role in ensuring the design quality to formulate some general standard design or technical regulations according to the regional situation。It is suggested that the relevant administrative departments, with reference to the "National Civil Building Engineering design Technical Measures" practice, put forward correct measures for the "common problems" and the technical links most prone to errors in engineering design, and formulate unified technical measures for each profession。This will play a guiding role in improving the design quality and improving the design level, and will also play a promoting role in improving the innovation ability of civil building design。
  Fourth, we will intensify scientific research。At present, due to the reform of wall materials, there are many new problems in the design and construction of the hybrid structure with a large quantity and wide area to be studied。The use function of high-rise buildings is becoming more and more complex, which needs to be supplemented and perfected continuously。In addition, some new topics need to be studied in advance。The research work time and manpower investment is large, the cycle is long, and the effect is slow, which requires the design institute to pay more attention and tilt in the policy。
  The fifth is to develop a reasonable design cycle。Some owners often compress the design cycle in order to catch up with the construction period, which artificially causes an adverse impact on the design quality。Designers in the limited time, in order to hand over the construction drawings as soon as possible, they have to give up the in-depth consideration of some aspects, which affects the design quality。It is suggested that the relevant management departments should give the designers the necessary time to demonstrate the scheme when formulating the design cycle。
  Second, the influence of the preparation of project list on project quality and countermeasures
  The preparation of construction project budget is a hard and meticulous work, which requires our professional workers to have excellent basic skills, good professional ethics, realistic style, diligent, hard-working spirit。While fully familiar with the connotation of quota, working procedures, contents of subitems, calculation rules and scales of construction quantities, we should go to the front line of construction projects and collect data, accumulate knowledge and start compiling from scratch。At present, there are many problems in the process of making the list, such as missing calculation and undercalculation, wrong application of quota, unclear description of the characteristics of the list items, inconsistency with the field situation, design change and modification are not taken into account。The existence of these problems directly affects the preparation of engineering quantity calculation, plus the bidder does not have enough time and will not check, there will be deviation in the tender offer, affecting the cost accounting of the enterprise。The construction enterprises that win the bid think that when they lose money or earn less, they will find ways to reduce costs from the rest, and even cut corners, affecting the quality of the project。In order to solve these problems, we should mainly consider the following aspects。
  First of all, professionals should strengthen their study and master the design and construction specifications 。According to the actual situation of the current building construction drawing design, budget professionals must master and be familiar with the design and construction specifications, if the specifications are not proficient, it will inevitably lead to errors。If you are more familiar with the specification, you can calculate the amount of work in these relevant parts freely, and there will be no calculation errors or missing items。
  Second, we should establish a review system for the compilation of lists。Establish a cross-review system for the project list of the tender price, and entrust another intermediary to review after the list preparation unit completes the preparation of the project tender price to find out the problems existing in the tender price。And require the preparation and review units to the project site inspection, so that the preparation of the project tender bottom as much as possible in line with the actual situation of the project, and develop a corresponding supporting reward and punishment system, so that the preparation unit, the review unit to optimize the working state, so that the list of "wrong, missing, less" and other conditions are controlled in the minimum range。
  Third, the administrative part should strengthen inspection and increase the frequency of inspection。So that the operators to further strengthen the business learning。Enable enterprises to strengthen internal management, improve professional ethics, and strictly implement the national and provincial laws, regulations and rules related to project cost management, consciously regulate their own practice, so as to promote the sustainable and healthy development of project cost consulting industry。
     Third, the impact of project bidding stage on project quality and countermeasures
  The Tendering and Bidding Law of the People's Republic of China clearly stipulates that the bidding method of reasonable low price shall be adopted for projects subject to public bidding according to law。The implementation of this method is the objective requirement of the development of socialist market economy, and will play an important role in promoting the standardization of bidding behavior, maintaining the order of the construction market, preventing vicious competition, and promoting the improvement of the technical level and governance level of construction enterprises。
  The low price concept of low bid does not refer to a reasonable low price that is difficult to quantify comparison, nor a false low price of low bid and high settlement, but the lowest price in many bids that ensure the construction period, quality and safety on the same platform。Bidding at a low price is the objective requirement of the law of value。The reasonable low price bidding method is only a means to ensure the standardized operation of the construction market at this stage, and it is a transition to the low price bidding method。With the development of market economy, the construction market gradually becomes healthy and orderly, and the low price bidding method will inevitably replace the reasonable low price bidding method。
  Problems of low bid:
  1.The owner's behavior is not good enough。Bidding prices are lower year by year。Owners often regard the lowest bid as a good opportunity for unlimited price pressure, but they do not know that the engineering design drawings based on the bidding are only "concept" products, and the engineering object should pass thousands of raw materials and components through scientific management, construction and installation, and its cost price is also objective。
  2.Market players are immature。Construction enterprise responsibility consciousness is not strong, cost consciousness is weak。At present, a large amount of information required for cost management in many construction enterprises can not be effectively transferred, resulting in the disconnection between technology and economy, and the lack of systematic concept of cost management。
  3.Some enterprises have poor contract consciousness。Because there are quite a number of enterprises with poor contract awareness and poor social reputation awareness in the society,They purposefully bid by underbidding,And in the process of project implementation,Or by cutting corners to reduce the quality of the project to obtain illegal profits,Or through work stoppage, unilateral termination of the contract and other mutually destructive means,Blackmailing the owner for compensation,Even overestimate and risk methods to make up for the lack of quotation,So it brings huge losses to the owners。
  4.Tender quality preparation is rough, not comprehensive consideration。For the various materials and equipment used in the project, there is no clear technical requirements and grade positioning。At present, it is the era of market economy, and the quality of materials and equipment on the market is uneven。If the requirements for materials and equipment in the tender are not clear, enterprises have great selectivity in the use of materials and equipment after bidding and winning the bid, and tend to choose the lowest level to meet the requirements subjectively, so as to make profits。It will also make the bidding price lower and lower, and the difficulty of project management will gradually increase, and the quality will become lower and lower, forming a vicious circle。
  5.The relevant laws and regulations are not perfect。There is currently a problem with below-cost bidding that is clearly illegal and harmful to society as a whole,There are too many imperfections and blind spots in the construction market regulations,And improper administrative intervention and other reasons caused by the owner's default problem,The most prominent is the vicious competition in the market,As a result, construction enterprises have lost their profit space,And then through claims and other ways to obtain the profits that can not be obtained when bidding,To recover their economic losses,Some enterprises even take the deduction or arrears of wages of migrant workers, misappropriating the cost of safety technical measures and other serious damage to the project。
  In order to solve these problems, we should mainly consider the following aspects。
  The first is to establish and improve the relevant system。First of all, we should perfect the market environment, establish, perfect and standardize the construction market。Accelerate the pace of market improvement, increase efforts to standardize the construction of the market, and ensure an open and orderly market competition environment。The second is to establish a market reputation file system。Standardize the construction market behavior, use administrative means to prevent the emergence of malicious low-price competition, and establish reputation files for bidders, guarantors, intermediaries and owners。
  The second is to speed up the reform of enterprises with cost as the management center。Strengthen management, reduce costs, do a good job in the national quota guide price of the enterprise quotation quota, take the initiative to adapt to the competition situation under the new market conditions。
  Third, owners should strengthen supervision。To ensure that the content of the bidding documents is rigorous, the terms are clear, the details of the quantity list are clear, the quantity is accurate, and strive to reduce the quantity errors, and there are clear solutions to the errors in the estimation。Clarify the technical requirements of each material and equipment, and determine the grade of material and equipment。
  The fourth is to establish a review system of the bid price, and clarify the relevant provisions in the bidding documents。After the successful bidder is determined, in order to ensure that its lowest quotation has included all the contents of the project, the bid inviter shall review the bid of the successful bidder for any calculation errors or omissions, and at the same time shall be reviewed by a qualified budget officer。In order to avoid disputes in the construction, but also to curb the behavior of vicious competition。
  To sum up, if the preliminary work of the project is strengthened, the factors affecting the quality of the project can be reduced at the source, and the strict management of the construction process will inevitably guarantee the quality of the project。(Architecture Times)